Waste stream definition
Large Household Appliances non-cold waste (LHA non-cold) are derived from “large household electrical and electronic equipment not producing cold and falling, until August 14th, 2018 under sub-category 1-B defined in Article R543-172, II, of the Environment Code, and under category 4 as of August 15th, 2018. This stream is composed mainly of washing machines, dishwashers, ovens, cooking hobs, electric radiators, etc.
The LHA non-cold stream represented 40% of the tonnage of WEEE collected and treated in 2015 in France.
Composition of LHA non-cold
Others : External power cables, Printed circuit boards, Condensators, Concrete, counterweight, Comon wastes, Shredder residues, Oils, Transformers or others induced motor
Figure 1: Composition of LHA non-cold (Study ADEME 2011)
Waste stream depollution and recycling
Depollution / pretreatment
For LHA non-cold, a depollution phase is carried out during which in particular capacitors and external cables are removed, as well as fractions requiring a specific treatment or disrupting the mechanical processes. Most of the time, these operations are done manually before treatment, and sometimes completed after mechanical dismantling as well.
Treatment / Recycling
The machines are ground and go through a series of sorting processes (mechanical, manual, magnetic) to separate:
Proposed improvement plan
The table below provides some ideas to improve the recycling of LHA non-cold appliances These ideas are coming from studies on the recycling of some products and difficulties encountered by treatment operators responsible for the treatment of WEEE. These areas for improvement can initiate a deeper reflection from producers. However, each product has its specificities and a number of other constraints to fulfill.
|Encountered difficulties||Impact for recycling||Eco design opportunities|
|The components to be extracted are fixed by a large number and different types of screws.||The dismantling time is important; it requires using several different tools.||Prefer bindings that do not require tools (e.g. clips instead of screws).
Reduce the number of different bindings on the same product.
Do not use fastener that are not reversible or that require a special tool to extract the parts during the depollution phase.
|The components removed before the recycling are removed manually.||The processing time of a product is longer.||Facilitate access to components that have to be removed before shredding, if possible automate of the operation.|
|The pollutants that have to be removed are not always identified / identifiable.||A pollutant can be forgotten in the product.||Establish a color code for elements to be depolluted.
Provide a procedure for dismounting / depollution for recyclers.
|The parts to remove before recycling (e.g. concrete weights on washing machines) are not in the same location in each product.||The operator spends time to locate components to remove.||Designing products so that the parties to dismantle before grinding are consistently in the same place.|
|Most vulnerable parts / components are not compatible between different models / brands.||This includes having a large stock of spare parts to repair product.||Standardize the weakest components for easy replacement.|
– Article R543-172 of the Environment Code. Légifrance (french only).
– Rule of the 8th of October 2014 […] related to treatment means for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Légifrance (french only).
– Sampling and characterization: Analysis of campaigns 2009-2010 – ADEME 2011 (french only).